The total import by 8 pepper-consuming countries was recorded at 15,503 tonnes towards the end of 2020
Global pepper production in the last 10 years registered a 72 per cent rise at 561,500 tonnes against 234,418 tonnes in 2010. However, the increase in the last one year was 1 per cent at 4,748 tonnes compared to 2019.
Vietnam contributed to 43 per cent of the global production. Brazil surpassed Indonesia as the second-largest pepper producer with 80,000 tonnes in 2019. Brazil's increase of production could be attributed to the result of the expansion of plantations in Espirito Santos, said Hoang Thi Lien, Executive Director, International Pepper Community.
The average pepper productivity in producing countries during 2010-20 had fluctuated; it recorded an increasing trend in 2011 and 2012, while it declined in the subsequent two years. However, in 2017 and 2018, the average productivity again showed a rising trend, with increase of 20 per cent and 19 per cent respectively, Lien said.
She was giving the lead lecture on Global Production and Trade Scenario - Black Pepper, at the international symposium on spices organised by the Indian Society for Spices.
In 11 years, Cambodia recorded the highest productivity with 3,740 per hectare in 2012. In 2020, the average productivity in producing countries was estimated at 1,594 kg per hectare, a 30 per cent rise or 365 kg per hectare compared with 2010.
During 2010-20, the average annual increase in pepper exports of producing countries was 6 per cent and the highest spike was reported in 2017 with 19 per cent. Vietnam contributed to 59 per cent of the global pepper export share in 2020 at 285,292 tonnes, followed by Brazil at 18 per cent (89,756 tonnes) and Indonesia at 11 per cent (51,718 tonnes). India exported 15,924 tonnes.
Referring to imports, Lien said the import market share in 2014-20 was dominated by Vietnam, India and China. China, as of July 2020, imported a staggering 42,997 tonnes, Vietnam 39,846 tonnes. Indian imports in 2020 were 24,805 tonnes.
China, as of July 2020, accounted for 16 per cent of the global import market share and became the second-largest importer behind the US. The US accounted for 28 per cent of the global import market share. The total import by eight pepper-consuming countries was recorded at 15,503 tonnes towards the end of 2020.