Vietnam sometimes spelled Viet Nam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea – referred to in Vietnam as the East Sea – to the east. With an estimated 90.5 million inhabitants as of 2011, Vietnam is the world’s 13th-most-populous country, and the eighth-most-populous Asian country.

The Vietnamese became independent from Imperial China in 938 AD, following the Battle of Bach Dang River. Successive Vietnamese royal dynasties flourished as the nation expanded geographically and politically into Southeast Asia, until the Indochina Peninsula was colonized by the French in the mid-19th century. Efforts to resist the French eventually led to their expulsion from the country in the mid-20th century, leaving Vietnam divided politically into two countries. Fighting between the two sides continued, with heavy foreign intervention, during the Vietnam War, which ended with a North Vietnamese victory in 1975.

Emerging from this prolonged military engagement, the war-ravaged Communist nation was politically isolated. In 1986, the government instituted economic and political reforms and began a path towards international reintegration. By 2000, it had established diplomatic relations with most nations. Its economic growth has been among the highest in the world since 2000,[11] and according to Citigroup, such high growth is set to continue. Vietnam has the highest Global Growth Generators Index among 11 major economies, and its successful economic reforms resulted in it joining the World Trade Organization in 2007. However, the country still suffers from relatively high levels of income inequality, disparities in healthcare provision, and poor gender equality.

Pepper in vietnam

As the biggest pepper producer and exporter in the world, Viet Nam contributed to 47% of the global pepper production for the year 2019. In 2019, Viet Nam was reported with the highest productivity by 2,4 Mt per Ha, recording an increase of 19% as compared to 2018.

During 2019, Viet Nam was reported to have produced 280,000 Mt, a significant increase of 37% when compared to the previous year, which comprised of 257,000 Mt black pepper and 23,000 Mt white pepper. The 2019 production figure was 75% higher as compared to the average production during the last ten years.

In 2019, Vietnam exported a total of 287,003 Mt of pepper valued at USD 721 million, recording the highest export figure for the past decade. This export quantity represented an increase by 22% while its value experienced a slight 7% decrease when respectively compared to the previous year.

In terms of export share, Viet Nam contributed to 60% of the total export of producing countries. The main destinations for Viet Nam’s pepper were reported to be China which contributed to 20% of the total pepper exported by Viet Nam, United States of America with 17%, India with 7%, Germany and United Arab Emirates with 4% respectively


Description 2019 2015 Averge
Area (Ha) 100,011 85,500 99,602
Production (Mt) 205,000 148,760 169,152
Export (Mt) 235,889 156,396 184,073
Export Earnings (USD’000) 774,715 1,210,172 1,163,771
Import (Mt) 3,915 25,000 14,652
Consumption (Mt) 8,000 6,500 6,950