Vietnam sometimes spelled Viet Nam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea – referred to in Vietnam as the East Sea – to the east. With an estimated 90.5 million inhabitants as of 2011, Vietnam is the world’s 13th-most-populous country, and the eighth-most-populous Asian country.

The Vietnamese became independent from Imperial China in 938 AD, following the Battle of Bach Dang River. Successive Vietnamese royal dynasties flourished as the nation expanded geographically and politically into Southeast Asia, until the Indochina Peninsula was colonized by the French in the mid-19th century. Efforts to resist the French eventually led to their expulsion from the country in the mid-20th century, leaving Vietnam divided politically into two countries. Fighting between the two sides continued, with heavy foreign intervention, during the Vietnam War, which ended with a North Vietnamese victory in 1975.

Emerging from this prolonged military engagement, the war-ravaged Communist nation was politically isolated. In 1986, the government instituted economic and political reforms and began a path towards international reintegration. By 2000, it had established diplomatic relations with most nations. Its economic growth has been among the highest in the world since 2000,[11] and according to Citigroup, such high growth is set to continue. Vietnam has the highest Global Growth Generators Index among 11 major economies, and its successful economic reforms resulted in it joining the World Trade Organization in 2007. However, the country still suffers from relatively high levels of income inequality, disparities in healthcare provision, and poor gender equality.

Pepper in vietnam

As the biggest pepper producer and exporter in the world, Viet Nam contributed to 34% of the global pepper production for the year 2021.

During 2021, Viet Nam was reported to have produced 180,000 Mt, a decrease of 25% when compared to the previous year, which comprised of 163,000 Mt black pepper and 17,000 Mt white pepper. The 2021 production figure was 2% higher as compared to the average production during the last ten years.

In 2021, Vietnam exported a total of 261,944 Mt of pepper valued at USD 997 million. This export quantity represented a decrease by 7% while its value experienced a spike by 52% when respectively compared to the previous year. In terms of export share, Viet Nam contributed to 58% of the total export of producing countries.

The main destinations for Viet Nam’s pepper were reported to be United States of America which contributed to 23% of the total pepper exported by Viet Nam, China with 15%, United Arab Emirates with 6%, India with 5% and Germany with 4% respectively.


Description 2021 2017 Averge
Area (Ha) 130,000 110,000 117,002 99,602
Production (Mt) 180,000 200,000 217,000
Export (Mt) 261,944 215,081 256,585
Export Earnings (USD’000) 997,683 1,119,341 853,899
Import (Mt) 8,500 7,250 8,150
Consumption (Mt) 23,236 23,757 23,908