INDIA, officially the Republic of India, is a state located in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; Bhutan, the People’s Republic of China and Nepal to the northeast; and Bangladesh and Burma to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; in addition, India’s Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilization and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires, the Indian subcontinent was identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history.[13] Four of the world’s major religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism – originated here, while Zor

oastrianism, Christianity and Islam arrived in the first millennium CE and shaped the region’s diverse culture.[14] Gradually annexed by the British East India Company from the early 18th century and colonized by the United Kingdom from the mid-19th century, India became an independent nation in 1947 after a struggle for independence which was marked by non-violent resistance and led by Mahatma Gandhi.

The Indian economy is the world’s tenth largest economy by nominal GDP and fourth largest economy by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India has become one of the fastest growing major economies, and is considered a newly industrialized country; however, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, illiteracy, corruption and inadequate public health. A nuclear weapons state and a regional power, it has the third-largest standing army in the world, and ranks tenth in military expenditure among nations.

India is a federal constitutional republic with a parliamentary democracy consisting of 28 states and seven union territories. It is one of the five BRICS nations. India is a pluralistic, multilingual, and multiethnic society. It is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats.

Pepper in India

India as the leading country for spices, has been known for centuries to produce varieties of spices. The state of Kerala. Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and other states in southern India cultivated the most popular spice from India which is Malabar black pepper. Pepper in India which mostly is cultivated by small and marginal farmers, is mainly grown as mixed crop with coconut, areca nut, coffee, cardamom etc.

During 2019, production of pepper in India was reported only reached a total of 48,000 Mt, recording a 25% decrease when compared to the achievement in 2018.

2019 saw the increase of Indian exports of pepper by 17% as compared with the previous year at 19,518 Mt. With the total value of USD 77 Million for 2019, the total income of Indian pepper export was reported to have decrease by 14%. Furthermore, as one of the countries with the most value-added product, India in 2019 was reported to have exported a total of 115 Mt of pepper oil and 1,510 Mt of pepper oleoresin which were valued at a total of USD 51 Million


Description 2019 2015 Averge
Area under pepper (ha) 134,838 198,500 147,593
Pepper Production (mt) 48,000 70,000 57,500
Pepper Export (mt) 19,518 28,520 19,109
Export Earnings from pepper (USD’000) 77,759 274,075 144,117
Import of pepper (mt) 29,357 21,461 24,018
Domestic Consumption (mt) 57,000 50,000 54,000
Exchange Rate (INR/USD) 70.41 64.15 67.05