IPC Admin 01/01/2018 MALAYSIA3661

Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia. It consists of thirteen states and three federal territories and has a total landmass of 329,847 square kilometres (127,350 sq mi) separated by the South China Sea into two similarly sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo. Land borders are shared with Thailand, Indonesia, and Brunei, and maritime borders exist with Singapore, Vietnam, and the Philippines. The capital city is Kuala Lumpur, while Putrajaya is the seat of the federal government. In 2010 the population exceeded 27.5 million, with over 20 million living on the Peninsula.

Malaysia has its origins in the Malay Kingdoms present in the area which, from the 18th century, became subject to the British Empire. The first British territories were known as the Straits Settlements, whose establishment was followed by the Malay kingdoms becoming British protectorates. The territories on Peninsular Malaysia were first unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, and achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaya united with Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore on 16 September 1963, with si being added to give the new country the name Malaysia. However, less than two years later in 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation. Since independence, Malaysia has had one of the best economic records in Asia, with GDP growing an average 6.5% for almost 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its natural resources, but is expanding in the sectors of science, tourism, commerce and medical tourism.

The country is multi-ethnic and multi-cultural, which plays a large role in politics. The government system is closely modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on English Common Law. The constitution declares Islam the state religion while protecting freedom of religion. The head of state is the King, known as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. He is an elected monarch chosen from the hereditary rulers of the nine Malay states every five years. The head of government is the Prime Minister.

Malaysia contains the southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai. Located in the tropics, it is a megadiverse country, with large numbers of endemic flora and fauna.

Pepper in malaysia

The state of Sarawak, the main Pepper producing region in Malaysia, accounts for more than 90% of the country's annual production. Black and white Pepper is produced and exported from this state. The other producing areas are Sabah and Peninsular Malaysia.

Malaysia's Pepper harvest begins in May. Production of Pepper in Malaysia during 2015 was estimated at 22,500 Mt (17,000 Mt of black and 5,500 Mt of white Pepper), an increase of 2,000 Mt from 20,500 Mt in 2014.

In the year 2015, Malaysia exported around 13,624 Mt of Pepper, comprising 11,325 Mt of black and 2,299 Mt of white Pepper. Export in 2015 was 1.5% higher than that of 13,450 Mt exported in 2014. The main markets for Malaysian pepper were Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea and Singapore.

Area under pepper (ha) 16,300 12,235 14,444
Pepper Production (mt) 22,500 19,000 21,620
Pepper Export (mt) 13,624 16,605 13,621
Export Earnings from pepper (USD'000) 133,042 39,597 76,959
Import of pepper (mt) 3,045 7,512 4,656
Domestic Consumption (mt) 13,500 3,200 7,920
Exchange Rate (MYR/USD) 3.92 3.67 3.37

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