IPC Admin 01/01/2018 INDIA4401

INDIA, officially the Republic of India, is a state located in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; Bhutan, the People's Republic of China and Nepal to the northeast; and Bangladesh and Burma to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; in addition, India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilization and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires, the Indian subcontinent was identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history.[13] Four of the world's major religions - Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism - originated here, while Zoroastrianism, Christianity and Islam arrived in the first millennium CE and shaped the region's diverse culture.[14] Gradually annexed by the British East India Company from the early 18th century and colonised by the United Kingdom from the mid-19th century, India became an independent nation in 1947 after a struggle for independence which was marked by non-violent resistance and led by Mahatma Gandhi.

The Indian economy is the world's tenth largest economy by nominal GDP and fourth largest economy by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India has become one of the fastest growing major economies, and is considered a newly industrialized country; however, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, illiteracy, corruption and inadequate public health. A nuclear weapons state and a regional power, it has the third-largest standing army in the world, and ranks tenth in military expenditure among nations.

India is a federal constitutional republic with a parliamentary democracy consisting of 28 states and seven union territories. It is one of the five BRICS nations. India is a pluralistic, multilingual, and multiethnic society. It is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats.

Pepper in India

India is widely known as a spice country. A large number of spices are grown and developed in the country, especially in southern part of India. The most popular spice from India is Malabar black Pepper, which is cultivated mainly in the state of Kerala. Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and other states in southern India also produces Pepper. Kerala has the distinction of accounting more than 40% of the total Pepper production in India, and it is mainly grown as mixed crop with Coconut, Areca nut, Coffee, Cardamom etc.

India harvests most of its Pepper at the beginning of the year. During 2015, production of Pepper in India was reportedly at the level of 64,250 Mt, registering a substantial increase from 37,000 Mt in 2014 and stabilising compared to 70,000 Mt in the previous ten years. The increase in production was mainly due to favourable weather condition during the crop season.

During 2015, the Indian exports of Pepper was around 28,520 Mt, valued at US$ 300 million, registering a 37% increase in volume from 20,400 Mt in 2014 and significant increase in value by 70% from US$ 176 million in 2014.

In terms of export share, India contributed only 9% in volume to the total producing countries export in 2015, a decrease from 15% of its share in 2007. Besides exporting raw material (whole Pepper), India also exports significant quantity of Pepper products such as green and ground Pepper, oil and oleoresin of Pepper.

Description 2015 2006 Averge
Area under pepper (ha) 198,000 253,730 202,830
Pepper Production (mt) 64,250 55,000 51,300
Pepper Export (mt) 28,500 26,376 23,815
Export Earnings from pepper (USD'000) 300,000 57,543 133,183
Import of pepper (mt) 21,461 18,125 16,454
Domestic Consumption (mt) 48,000 61,000 50,770
Exchange Rate (INR/USD) 64.18 45.19 50.79

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